Chinese language is an unfamiliar territory for many whose first language use an alphabetic system such as English. Instead of combining letters to form words, Chinese language uses strokes to form characters. The commonly used Chinese characters alone contain 3000 thoughts. Not only that, Chinese is additionally tonal language with four different tones, commonly marked with accent marks, additionally unmarked represents the neutral tone. The accent marks are only available unfavorable PinYin to represent the pronunciation. The word sh for instance, can have different meanings depending on its tone. The first tone sh can mean poetry or wet or teacher. The second tone sh can mean ten or time or possible. The third tone sh can mean history or to start or to cause. The fourth tone sh can mean yes or room or matter. In essence, couple options many similar sounds with assorted meanings. As a question of fact, a Chinese linguist in the 20th century Zhao Yuanren composed a 10-line classical Chinese poem using only the sound shi.
Next, it is not always possible to guess the pronunciation of a design. The character for wood, for instance, is pronounced mu. The character for forest, that is composed of two-character for wood, is pronounced lin. Although in this example the pronunciation isn’t related, the concise explaination of the characters may possibly. On the contrary, when the pronunciation can be related due to similar root character, the meanings are not necessarily related.
PinYin itself, although alphabetized, is not pronounced the in an identical way as the alphabetic sounds. There are unfamiliar sounds such as u with an umlaut () that sounds like a compounding of I and u. Like as much as possible unfamiliar, it might lead to uncertainty and fearfulness. Thus, knowing the challenges learners face is the actual step in devising effective learning strategies that directly affect their language success.
The Strategies Once Learn Chinese Characters
Prof Ko-Yin Sung of Chinese Language Study from Utah State university conducted a research amongst non-heritage, non-Asian Eastern learners and uncovered interesting results which could help future learners in forming an effective study procedure. Her study revolves all through most used often Chinese character learning strategies and how those strategies affect the learners’ ability in understanding and producing the sound and the writing of this Chinese characters.
The study finds that among very best twenty most often used strategies, eight from them are springing out of when a character is first introduced to learners. These include:
1. Repeating the character several times aloud or silently.
2. Writing the character down.
3. Noting how the is implemented in context.
4. Noting the tone and associating it with pinyin.
5. Observing the character and stroke order.
6. Visualising the mood.
7. Hearing the explanation of the.
8. Associating the character with previously learned design.
The next six strategies are often increase learners’ understanding for this newly introduced character.
9. Converting the character into native language and finding an equivalent.
10. Looking in the textbook or dictionary.
11. Checking if the actual character is used a long time ago.
12. Trying to find out how they are used in conversation.
13. Utilizing the character in sentences by mouth.
14. Asking how to say hello in mandarin the character could be utilized in content.
However, learning strategies commence to diminish beyond those two learning concentrations. There are only three strategies for the memorising newly learned avatar.
15. Saying and writing the character at duration.
16. Saying and picturing the character in your head.
17. With the sound, visualising the character shape and meaning.
And hard work only one strategy discovered practising new characters.
18. Making sentences and writing them out.
And new characters are reviewed along with two strategies only.
19. Writing the characters many time intervals.
20. Reading over notes, example sentences and the textbook.
Of the twenty strategies mentioned above, four tend to be found to be most significant in increasing learner’s skills of speaking, listening, reading, and writing of fresh characters. The four strategies are:
Writing the characters down
Observing the stroke order
Making connection to a similar character
Saying and writing the type repeatedly
A research by Stice in 1987 showed that students only retained 10% of the things learned from what they read, 26% from anything they hear, and 30% from what they see. While studying modes are combined, an essential improvement in learning retention is noted. Learning retention jumped to 50% when seeing and hearing are combined, and even higher at 70% when students repeat the materials are generally learning, and learning retention is at the highest at 90% when students repeat the materials built learning simply because they do the one thing. Simply reading the characters are not enough. Learners must associate the sound with the characters, develop a connection is not characters various other them memorable, and practice recalling the newly learned characters.
Study demonstrates that recalling new characters learned improves learning retention and reinforces learning. One way to practice this can be using an app for instance The Intelligent Flashcards. This specific unit flashcard app is planned for the New Practical Chinese Reader textbooks, making it convenient to review characters created from chapters. Not necessarily does it show stroke order animation, it one more accompanied by native speaker sound files, making this app a great dea of more convenient that another app such as Anki. With Anki, although user could add personal notes on it, the sound file is not available and must be imported through another app.
Another important learning approach to incorporate is observing any characters are widely-used in context. This can be done by observing real-life conversations to add to the textbook and audio tracks conversation. Usually interesting to note that university students studied in the abovementioned research were hesitant to adopt the learning strategies recommended by the instructors, for instance watching Chinese TV shows or listening Chinese music tracks. There could be many reasons that generate this. The design and style of the shows or songs cannot appeal for the learners.
Regarding this program is not as convenient. Or if the shows might accessed online, rarely are they subtitled in either both Chinese and English which makes the shows more necessary to beginner learners in receiving the language. Also, most among the very popular Chinese Television programs fall into the historical genre, which can be a favourite among the Chinese, with regard to The Empress of China’s websites. However, the language spoken in this particular type of TV show is somewhat more complex as opposed to a contemporary spoken Chinese.